ABM Industries Incorporated
ABM INDUSTRIES INC /DE/ (Form: 10-Q, Received: 06/07/2018 15:48:28)



 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
__________________________
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
þ
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended April 30, 2018
or
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to              
Commission File Number: 1-8929  
FINALA02A05A02A12.JPG
ABM INDUSTRIES INCORPORATED
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
ABMCOLLABICONA12.JPG
94-1369354
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
__________________________
One Liberty Plaza, 7 th Floor
New York, New York 10006
(Address of principal executive offices)

(212) 297-0200
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

None
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
__________________________








Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes   þ     No   o  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes   þ     No   o  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
þ
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
¨
Smaller reporting company
¨
Emerging growth company
¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes   o   No þ
Number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of June 1, 2018 : 65,742,160
 




ABM INDUSTRIES INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARIES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Consolidated Financial Statements
Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5. Other Information
Item 6. Exhibits
SIGNATURES



FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Form 10-Q contains both historical and forward-looking statements regarding ABM Industries Incorporated (“ABM”) and its subsidiaries (collectively referred to as “ABM,” “we,” “us,” “our,” or the “Company”). We make forward-looking statements related to future expectations, estimates, and projections that are uncertain and often contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “outlook,” “plan,” “predict,” “should,” “target,” or other similar words or phrases. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Particular risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to be materially different from those expressed in our forward-looking statements include those listed below.
We may not realize the growth opportunities and cost synergies that are anticipated from the acquisition of GCA Services Group (“GCA”).
We have incurred a substantial amount of debt to complete the acquisition of GCA. To service our debt we will require a significant amount of cash. Our ability to generate cash depends on many factors beyond our control. We also depend on the profitability of our subsidiaries to satisfy our cash needs. If we cannot generate the required cash, we may not be able to make the necessary payments required to service our indebtedness or we may be required to suspend certain discretionary payments, including our dividend.
Changes to our businesses, operating structure, financial reporting structure, or personnel relating to the implementation of our 2020 Vision strategic transformation initiative, including our move to our Enterprise Services Center, may not have the desired effects on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our success depends on our ability to gain profitable business despite competitive pressures and to preserve long-term client relationships.
Our business success depends on our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel and senior management.
Our use of subcontractors or joint venture partners to perform work under customer contracts exposes us to liability and financial risk.
Our international business involves risks different from those we face in the United States that could have an effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Unfavorable developments in our class and representative actions and other lawsuits alleging various claims could cause us to incur substantial liabilities.
We insure our insurable risks through a combination of insurance and self-insurance and we retain a substantial portion of the risk associated with expected losses under these programs, which exposes us to volatility associated with those risks, including the possibility that changes in estimates of ultimate insurance losses could result in a material charge against our earnings.
Our risk management and safety programs may not have the intended effect of reducing our liability for personal injury or property loss.
Impairment of goodwill and long-lived assets could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in general economic conditions, including changes in energy prices, government regulations, or changing consumer preferences, could reduce the demand for facility services and, as a result, reduce our earnings and adversely affect our financial condition.
Our income tax provision and income tax liabilities could be adversely affected by the jurisdictional mix of earnings, changes in valuations of deferred tax assets and liabilities, and changes in tax treaties, laws, and regulations, including the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which effected significant changes to the U.S. corporate income tax system.
We could be subject to cyber-security risks, information technology interruptions, and business continuity risks.
A significant number of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements that could expose us to potential liabilities in relationship to our participation in multiemployer pension plans, requirements to make contributions to other benefit plans, and the potential for strikes, work slowdowns or similar activities, and union-organizing drives.
If we fail to maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements could be negatively impacted, which could harm our operating results and investors’ perceptions of our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.
Our business may be negatively impacted by adverse weather conditions.

1


Catastrophic events, disasters, and terrorist attacks could disrupt our services.
Actions of activist investors could disrupt our business.
The list of factors above is illustrative and by no means exhaustive. Additional information regarding these and other risks and uncertainties we face is contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2017 and in other reports we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission (including all amendments to those reports).
We urge readers to consider these risks and uncertainties in evaluating our forward-looking statements. We caution readers not to place undue reliance upon any such forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise, except as required by law.

2



PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.
ABM INDUSTRIES INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(UNAUDITED)
(in millions, except share and per share amounts)
April 30, 2018
 
October 31, 2017
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
69.7

 
$
62.8

Trade accounts receivable, net of allowances of $16.4
   and $25.5 at April 30, 2018 and October 31, 2017, respectively
1,005.7

 
1,038.1

Prepaid expenses
107.0

 
101.8

Other current assets
33.3

 
32.8

Total current assets
1,215.7

 
1,235.5

Other investments
19.4

 
17.6

Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $156.2
   and $136.4 at April 30, 2018 and October 31, 2017, respectively
140.7

 
143.1

Other intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization of $222.4
   and $189.1 at April 30, 2018 and October 31, 2017, respectively
387.1

 
430.1

Goodwill
1,867.5

 
1,864.2

Other noncurrent assets
119.4

 
122.1

Total assets
$
3,749.9

 
$
3,812.6

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities
 
 
 
Current portion of long-term debt, net
$
17.0

 
$
16.9

Trade accounts payable
213.9

 
230.8

Accrued compensation
142.5

 
159.9

Accrued taxes—other than income
52.3

 
52.5

Insurance claims
114.7

 
112.5

Income taxes payable
5.3

 
13.4

Other accrued liabilities
158.5

 
171.8

Total current liabilities
704.2

 
757.8

Long-term debt, net
1,090.3

 
1,161.3

Deferred income tax liability, net
39.9

 
57.3

Noncurrent insurance claims
391.0

 
382.9

Other noncurrent liabilities
62.9

 
61.3

Noncurrent income taxes payable
24.9

 
16.3

Total liabilities
2,313.3

 
2,436.9

Commitments and contingencies


 


Stockholders’ Equity
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value; 500,000 shares authorized; none issued

 

Common stock, $0.01 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized;
65,729,949 and 65,502,568 shares issued and outstanding at
April 30, 2018 and October 31, 2017, respectively
0.7

 
0.7

Additional paid-in capital
683.1

 
675.2

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of taxes
1.6

 
(20.3
)
Retained earnings
751.2

 
720.1

Total stockholders’ equity
1,436.6

 
1,375.7

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
3,749.9

 
$
3,812.6


See accompanying notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.

3


ABM INDUSTRIES INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(UNAUDITED)
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
Six Months Ended April 30,
(in millions, except per share amounts)
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Revenues
$
1,580.8

 
$
1,310.5

 
$
3,169.2

 
$
2,637.2

Operating expenses
1,405.8

 
1,164.6

 
2,835.1

 
2,359.7

Selling, general and administrative expenses
107.8

 
100.7

 
216.8

 
198.0

Restructuring and related expenses
5.3

 
5.8

 
19.6

 
10.8

Amortization of intangible assets
16.7

 
5.8

 
32.9

 
11.3

Impairment recovery

 
(17.4
)
 

 
(17.4
)
Operating profit
45.3

 
51.0

 
64.8

 
74.8

Income from unconsolidated affiliates, net
1.0

 
0.9

 
1.6

 
2.3

Interest expense
(13.8
)
 
(3.0
)
 
(28.1
)
 
(6.3
)
Income from continuing operations before income taxes
32.5

 
48.9

 
38.2

 
70.9

Income tax (provision) benefit
(7.1
)
 
(17.3
)
 
15.1

 
(23.2
)
Income from continuing operations
25.4

 
31.6

 
53.3

 
47.7

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes
1.2

 
(0.4
)
 
1.1

 
(73.2
)
Net income (loss)
26.6

 
31.3

 
54.4

 
(25.5
)
Other comprehensive income (loss)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in fair value of interest rate swaps
4.6

 

 
23.2

 
2.6

Foreign currency translation
(4.5
)
 
3.0

 
5.0

 
6.3

Income tax provision
(1.2
)
 

 
(6.3
)
 
(1.1
)
Comprehensive income (loss)
$
25.5

 
$
34.3

 
$
76.3

 
$
(17.6
)
Net income (loss) per common share — Basic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from continuing operations
$
0.38

 
$
0.56

 
$
0.81

 
$
0.85

Income (loss) from discontinued operations
0.02

 
(0.01
)
 
0.02

 
(1.31
)
Net income (loss)
$
0.40

 
$
0.56

 
$
0.83

 
$
(0.46
)
Net income (loss) per common share — Diluted
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from continuing operations
$
0.38

 
$
0.56

 
$
0.80

 
$
0.84

Income (loss) from discontinued operations
0.02

 
(0.01
)
 
0.02

 
(1.29
)
Net income (loss)
$
0.40

 
$
0.55

 
$
0.82

 
$
(0.45
)
Weighted-average common and common equivalent shares outstanding
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
66.0

 
56.0

 
66.0

 
56.0

Diluted
66.2

 
56.5

 
66.3

 
56.6

Dividends declared per common share
$
0.175

 
$
0.170

 
$
0.350

 
$
0.340

See accompanying notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.


4


ABM INDUSTRIES INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(UNAUDITED)
 
Six Months Ended April 30,
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
Cash flows from operating activities
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
$
54.4

 
$
(25.5
)
(Income) loss from discontinued operations, net of taxes
(1.1
)
 
73.2

Income from continuing operations
53.3

 
47.7

Adjustments to reconcile income from continuing operations to net cash provided by operating activities of continuing operations
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
57.5

 
28.5

Proceeds from termination of interest rate swaps
25.9

 

Impairment recovery

 
(17.4
)
Deferred income taxes
(23.3
)
 
9.7

Share-based compensation expense
8.3

 
7.3

Provision for bad debt
3.9

 
2.0

Discount accretion on insurance claims
0.4

 
0.1

Loss (gain) on sale of assets
0.4

 
(0.1
)
Income from unconsolidated affiliates, net
(1.6
)
 
(2.3
)
Distributions from unconsolidated affiliates
0.1

 
0.8

Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of effects of acquisitions
 
 
 
Trade accounts receivable
28.7

 
(47.3
)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
0.4

 
(2.7
)
Other noncurrent assets
1.3

 
(6.4
)
Trade accounts payable and other accrued liabilities
(37.2
)
 
1.1

Insurance claims
9.7

 
15.6

Income taxes payable
2.6

 
5.1

Other noncurrent liabilities
1.7

 
8.4

Total adjustments
78.8

 
2.4

Net cash provided by operating activities of continuing operations
132.2

 
50.1

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities of discontinued operations
1.1

 
(2.0
)
Net cash provided by operating activities
133.3

 
48.1

Cash flows from investing activities
 
 
 
Additions to property, plant and equipment
(22.1
)
 
(27.8
)
Proceeds from sale of assets
0.2

 
0.4

Adjustments to purchase and sale of business
(1.8
)
 

Purchase of businesses, net of cash acquired

 
(18.6
)
Investments in unconsolidated affiliates
(0.6
)
 

Net cash used in investing activities
(24.4
)
 
(46.0
)
Cash flows from financing activities
 
 
 
(Taxes withheld) and proceeds from issuance of share-based compensation awards, net
(0.7
)
 
0.8

Repurchases of common stock

 
(7.9
)
Dividends paid
(23.0
)
 
(18.9
)
Deferred financing costs paid
(0.1
)
 

Borrowings from credit facility
468.5

 
441.9

Repayment of borrowings from credit facility
(541.0
)
 
(432.3
)
Changes in book cash overdrafts
(4.8
)
 
17.2

Financing of energy savings performance contracts

 
2.6

Payment of contingent consideration

 
(3.8
)
Repayment of capital lease obligations
(1.7
)
 
(0.1
)
Net cash used in financing activities
(102.7
)
 
(0.5
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
0.8

 
0.6

Net increase  in  cash and cash equivalents
6.9

 
2.2

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year
62.8

 
53.5

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
$
69.7

 
$
55.7

See accompanying notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.

5


ABM INDUSTRIES INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
1. THE COMPANY AND NATURE OF OPERATIONS
 
 
ABM Industries Incorporated, which operates through its subsidiaries (collectively referred to as “ABM,” “we,” “us,” “our,” or the “Company”), is a leading provider of integrated facility services with a mission to make a difference, every person, every day . We are organized into five industry groups and one Technical Solutions segment:
FY2018INDUSTRYGROUPSA01.JPG
Through these groups, we offer janitorial, facilities engineering, parking, and specialized mechanical and electrical technical solutions, on a standalone basis or in combination with other services.
2. BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
 
 
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with (i) United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information and (ii) the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. In the opinion of our management, our unaudited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes (the “Financial Statements”) include all normal recurring adjustments that are necessary for the fair statement of the interim periods presented. Interim results of operations are not necessarily indicative of results for the full year. The Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements (and notes thereto) in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017 . Unless otherwise indicated, all references to years are to our fiscal year, which ends on October 31 .    
Acquisition of GCA Services Group
On September 1, 2017 (the “Acquisition Date”), we completed the acquisition of GCA Services Group (“GCA”). Accordingly, our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) and statements of cash flows include GCA’s results of operations in the three and six months ended April 30, 2018 , but exclude GCA’s results of operations in the three and six months ended April 30, 2017 , as that was prior to the Acquisition Date. See Note 3 , “Acquisitions,” for further information on the acquisition of GCA.
Government Services
On May 31, 2017, we sold our Government Services business for $35.5 million and recorded a pre-tax gain of $1.2 million during the third quarter of 2017. The reported results for this business are through the date of sale. Future results could include run-off costs associated with this former business.
Discontinued Operations
Following the sale of our Security business in 2015, we record all costs associated with this former business in discontinued operations. Such costs generally relate to litigation we retained and insurance reserves.

6


Prior Year Reclassifications
Effective November 1, 2017, we made changes to our operating structure as a result of the GCA acquisition. To reflect these changes, certain prior year amounts, including operating segment data, have been reclassified to conform with our fiscal 2018 presentation. These changes had no impact on our previously reported consolidated balance sheets, statements of comprehensive income (loss), or statements of cash flows. See Note 12 , “Segment Information,” for further details.
Rounding
We round amounts in the Financial Statements to millions and calculate all percentages and per-share data from the underlying whole-dollar amounts. Thus, certain amounts may not foot, crossfoot, or recalculate based on reported numbers due to rounding.
Management Reimbursement Revenue by Segment
We operate certain parking facilities under managed location arrangements. Under these arrangements, we manage the parking facility for a management fee and pass through the revenue and expenses associated with the facility to the owner. These revenues and expenses are reported in equal amounts as costs reimbursed from our managed locations:
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
Six Months Ended April 30,
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Business & Industry
$
63.5

 
$
58.1

 
$
126.5

 
$
115.9

Aviation
27.6

 
16.2

 
53.1

 
32.7

Healthcare
5.0

 
4.8

 
9.9

 
9.4

Total
$
96.1

 
$
79.1

 
$
189.4

 
$
158.0

Impact of New Revenue Recognition Standard
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, establishing Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers . The FASB subsequently issued several clarifying ASUs, collectively referred to as “ASC 606,” that introduce a new principles-based framework for revenue recognition and disclosure. The core requirement of the standard is when an entity transfers goods or services to customers it will recognize revenue in an amount that reflects the consideration the entity expects to be entitled to for those goods or services. ASC 606 allows either a full retrospective adoption to all periods presented or a modified retrospective adoption approach with a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the year of adoption.
To assess the impact of this standard, we have established a cross-functional implementation team consisting of representatives from all of our operating segments. The implementation team is analyzing our contract portfolio to identify potential differences that would result from applying the requirements of this new standard. In addition, we are in the process of identifying and implementing the appropriate changes to our business processes and controls to support recognition and disclosure under this new standard. We expect the largest impact to our consolidated financial statements will result from the new qualitative and quantitative disclosures that will be required upon adoption of the new standard. Additionally, the accounting for certain direct and incremental contract costs is significantly different from our current capitalization policy; however, the impact of this difference is currently unknown. We are continuing to evaluate the impact of this standard and an estimate of the impact to our consolidated financial statements cannot be made at this time. We expect to adopt ASC 606 on November 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective approach, under which we will present the cumulative effect of adoption as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings at the adoption date.
No other recently issued standards are expected to have a significant impact on our fiscal 2019 consolidated financial statements.

7


3. ACQUISITIONS
 
 
Acquisition of GCA during 2017
On September 1, 2017, we acquired all of the outstanding stock of GCA, a provider of integrated facility services to educational institutions and commercial facilities, for a purchase price of approximately $1.3 billion . As described in Note 12 , “Segment Information,” we integrated GCA’s operations into our industry group model effective November 1, 2017. As a result of the acquisition, we are now a leading facilities services provider in the education market.

Consideration Transferred
(in millions, except per share data)
 
 
Shares of ABM common stock, net of shares withheld for taxes
 
9.4

ABM common stock closing market price at acquisition date
 
$
44.63

Fair value of ABM common stock at closing
 
421.3

Cash consideration (1)
 
837.5

Total consideration transferred
 
$
1,258.8

(1) Revised during the second quarter of 2018 to reflect a post-closing purchase price adjustment related to a net working capital settlement.
Preliminary Purchase Price Allocation
Our preliminary purchase price allocation is based on information that is currently available, and we are continuing to evaluate the underlying inputs and assumptions used in our valuations. Accordingly, the purchase price allocation is subject to, among other items: further analysis of tax accounts, including deferred tax liabilities, and final valuation of identifiable intangible assets. During the six months ended April 30, 2018 , we refined our valuation of customer relationships and certain other estimates.

The following table presents our preliminary estimates of fair values of the assets we acquired and the liabilities we assumed on the date of acquisition as previously reported at year-end 2017 and at the end of the second quarter of 2018 .

 
As reported at
 

 
As reported at
(in millions)
 
October 31, 2017
 
Adjustments
 
April 30, 2018
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
2.5

 
$
(2.3
)
 
$
0.2

Trade accounts receivable (1)
 
118.1

 


 
118.1

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
 
10.3

 


 
10.3

Property, plant and equipment
 
41.4

 
0.1

 
41.5

Customer relationships (2)
 
340.0

 
(10.0
)
 
330.0

Trade names (2)
 
9.0

 


 
9.0

Goodwill (3)
 
933.9

 
(0.5
)
 
933.4

Other assets
 
4.2

 
(0.2
)
 
4.0

Trade accounts payable
 
(9.1
)
 
(0.4
)
 
(9.6
)
Insurance reserves
 
(35.5
)
 
(0.2
)
 
(35.6
)
Income taxes payable
 
(16.5
)
 
8.2

 
(8.3
)
Accrued liabilities
 
(36.5
)
 
2.9

 
(33.5
)
Deferred income tax liability, net
 
(92.6
)
 


 
(92.6
)
Other liabilities
 
(8.1
)
 


 
(8.1
)
Net assets acquired
 
$
1,261.3

 
$
(2.4
)
 
$
1,258.8

(1) The gross amount of trade accounts receivable was $122.0 million , of which $3.9 million is expected to be uncollectible.
(2) The amortization periods for the acquired intangible assets are 15 years for customer relationships and 2 years for trade names.
(3) Goodwill is largely attributable to value we expect to obtain from long-term business growth, the established workforce, and buyer-specific synergies. This goodwill is not deductible for income tax purposes.

8


Financial Information
For the three and six months ended April 30, 2018 , we recorded revenue related to GCA of $256.4 million and $508.0 million , respectively, and operating profit of $7.5 million and $12.5 million , respectively. The following table presents our unaudited pro forma results as though the GCA acquisition occurred on November 1, 2015 . The pro forma results include adjustments for the estimated amortization of intangible assets, interest expense, and the income tax impact of the pro forma adjustments at the statutory rate of 41% . These pro forma results do not reflect the cost of integration activities or benefits from expected revenue enhancements and synergies. Accordingly, the pro forma information is not necessarily indicative of the results that would have been achieved if the acquisition had been effective on November 1, 2015 .
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
(in millions)
 
April 30, 2017
 
April 30, 2017
Pro forma revenue
 
$
1,560.5

 
$
3,139.4

Pro forma income from continuing operations
 
31.9

 
46.5

Other 2017 Acquisitions
Effective December 1, 2016, we acquired all of the outstanding stock of Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (“MSI”), a provider of specialized HVAC, chiller, and plumbing services, for a purchase price of $12.6 million . The purchase price includes up to $1.0 million of undiscounted contingent consideration that is based on the expected achievement of certain pre-established revenue goals. See Note 6 , “Fair Value of Financial Instruments,” regarding our valuation of contingent consideration liabilities. As of December 1, 2016, the operations of MSI are included in our Technical Solutions segment.

Effective December 1, 2016, we also acquired all of the outstanding stock of OFJ Connections Ltd (“OFJ”), a provider of airport transportation services in the United Kingdom, for a purchase price of $6.3 million . As of December 1, 2016, the operations of OFJ are included in our Aviation segment.
Pro Forma and Other Supplemental Financial Information
Except for GCA, we do not present pro forma and other financial information for our other acquisitions, as they are not considered material business combinations individually or on a combined basis.

9


4. RESTRUCTURING AND RELATED COSTS
 
 
GCA Restructuring
Following the acquisition of GCA, during the first quarter of 2018 we initiated a restructuring program to achieve cost synergies from our combined operations. We incurred the majority of our anticipated severance expense associated with this restructuring program in the first half of 2018. We expect to incur additional charges related to other project fees and rebranding activities in the second half of 2018.
2020 Vision Restructuring
During the fourth quarter of 2015, our Board of Directors approved a comprehensive strategy intended to have a positive transformative effect on ABM (the “ 2020 Vision ”). As part of the 2020 Vision , we identified key priorities to differentiate ABM in the marketplace, accelerate revenue growth for certain industry groups, and improve our margin profile. We incurred additional expenses primarily related to external support fees and other project fees during the six months ended April 30, 2018 relating to this strategy. We do not expect to incur significant 2020 Vision restructuring and related expenses in the future, other than in connection with the continued consolidation of our real estate leases.
Rollforward of Restructuring and Related Liabilities
(in millions)
 
Balance,
October 31, 2017
 
Costs Recognized (1)
 
Payments
 
Non-Cash Items
 
Balance,
April 30, 2018
Employee severance
 
$
2.7

 
$
9.3

 
$
(6.5
)
 
$

 
$
5.5

Lease exit costs and asset impairment
 
2.8

 
2.5

 
(0.3
)
 
(1.1
)
 
3.9

Other project fees
 
0.4

 
3.8

 
(1.6
)
 

 
2.5

External support fees
 
2.5

 
4.0

 
(6.5
)
 

 

Total
 
$
8.4

 
$
19.6

 
$
(14.9
)
 
$
(1.1
)
 
$
11.9

(1) We include these costs within corporate expenses.
Cumulative Restructuring and Related Charges
(in millions)

External Support Fees

Employee Severance

Other Project Fees

Lease Exit Costs

Asset Impairment

Total
GCA

$
2.0


$
11.2


$
3.5


$


$


$
16.6

2020   Vision

30.0


13.6


10.7


7.7


5.2


67.1

Total

$
32.0


$
24.7


$
14.2


$
7.7


$
5.2


$
83.8



10


5. NET INCOME PER COMMON SHARE
 
 
Basic and Diluted Net Income Per Common Share Calculations
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
Six Months Ended April 30,
(in millions, except per share amounts)
2018
 
2017
 
2018

2017
Income from continuing operations
$
25.4

 
$
31.6

 
$
53.3

 
$
47.7

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes
1.2

 
(0.4
)
 
1.1

 
(73.2
)
Net income (loss)
$
26.6

 
$
31.3

 
$
54.4

 
$
(25.5
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted-average common and common equivalent shares outstanding — Basic
66.0

 
56.0

 
66.0

 
56.0

Effect of dilutive securities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Restricted stock units
0.1

 
0.3

 
0.1

 
0.3

Stock options
0.1

 
0.2

 
0.1

 
0.2

Performance shares

 

 

 
0.1

Weighted-average common and common equivalent shares outstanding — Diluted
66.2

 
56.5

 
66.3

 
56.6

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) per common share — Basic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from continuing operations
$
0.38

 
$
0.56

 
$
0.81

 
$
0.85

Income (loss) from discontinued operations
0.02

 
(0.01
)
 
0.02

 
(1.31
)
Net income (loss)
$
0.40

 
$
0.56

 
$
0.83

 
$
(0.46
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) per common share — Diluted
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from continuing operations
$
0.38

 
$
0.56

 
$
0.80

 
$
0.84

Income (loss) from discontinued operations
0.02

 
(0.01
)
 
0.02

 
(1.29
)
Net income (loss)
$
0.40

 
$
0.55

 
$
0.82

 
$
(0.45
)
Anti-Dilutive Outstanding Stock Awards Issued Under Share-Based Compensation Plans
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
Six Months Ended April 30,
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Anti-dilutive
0.5

 

 
0.3

 



11


6. FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
 
 
Fair Value Hierarchy of Our Financial Instruments
Financial Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
(in millions)
Fair Value Hierarchy
 
April 30, 2018
 
October 31, 2017
Cash and cash equivalents (1)
1
 
$
69.7

 
$
62.8

Insurance deposits (2)
1
 
10.4

 
11.2

Assets held in funded deferred compensation plan (3)
1
 
4.1

 
4.6

Credit facility (4)
2
 
1,118.7

 
1,191.2

Interest rate swaps (5)
2
 

 
2.9

Investments in auction rate securities (6)
3
 
8.0

 
8.0

Contingent consideration liability (7)
3
 
0.9

 
0.9

(1) Cash and cash equivalents are stated at nominal value, which equals fair value.
(2) Represents restricted deposits that are used to collateralize our insurance obligations and are stated at nominal value, which equals fair value. These insurance deposits are included in “Other noncurrent assets” on the accompanying unaudited consolidated balance sheets. See Note 8 , “Insurance,” for further information.
(3) Represents investments held in a Rabbi trust associated with one of our deferred compensation plans, which we include in “Other noncurrent assets” on the accompanying unaudited consolidated balance sheets. The fair value of the assets held in the funded deferred compensation plan is based on quoted market prices.
(4) Represents gross outstanding borrowings under our syndicated line of credit and term loan. Due to variable interest rates, the carrying value of outstanding borrowings under our line of credit and term loan approximates the fair value. See Note 9 , “Credit Facility,” for further information.
(5) Represents interest rate swap derivatives designated as cash flow hedges. The fair values of the interest rate swaps are estimated based on the present value of the difference between expected cash flows calculated at the contracted interest rates and the expected cash flows at current market interest rates using observable benchmarks for LIBOR forward rates at the end of the period. At October 31, 2017, these interest rate swaps were included in “Other noncurrent assets” on the accompanying unaudited consolidated balance sheets. During April 2018, we elected to terminate our interest rate swaps. See Note 9 , “Credit Facility,” for further information.
(6) The fair value of investments in auction rate securities is based on discounted cash flow valuation models, primarily utilizing unobservable inputs, including assumptions about the underlying collateral, credit risks associated with the issuer, credit enhancements associated with financial insurance guarantees, and the possibility of the security being re-financed by the issuer or having a successful auction. These amounts are included in “Other investments” on the accompanying unaudited consolidated balance sheets. On May 16, 2018, we sold one of these securities. See Note 7 , “Auction Rate Securities,” for further information.
(7) Certain of our acquisitions involve the payment of contingent consideration. The fair value of these liabilities is based on the expected achievement of certain pre-established revenue goals. Our contingent consideration liability is included in “Other accrued liabilities” and “Other noncurrent liabilities” on the accompanying unaudited consolidated balance sheets.
During the six months ended April 30, 2018 , we had no transfers of assets or liabilities between any of the above hierarchy levels.
Non-Financial Assets Measured at Fair Value on a Non-Recurring Basis
I n certain circumstances we measure certain assets that are subject to fair value adjustments at fair value on a non-recurring basis. These assets can include: goodwill; intangible assets; property, plant and equipment; and long-lived assets that have been reduced to fair value when they are held for sale.
On November 1, 2017, we reorganized our reportable segments and goodwill reporting units. In connection with this reorganization, we performed a qualitative goodwill impairment test immediately before and after the segment realignment. In analyzing the results of operations and business conditions of the goodwill reporting units, we determined the likelihood of a goodwill impairment did not reach the more-likely-than-not threshold specified in U.S. GAAP for any of the reporting units that were evaluated. Accordingly, we concluded that goodwill related to those reporting units was not impaired and further quantitative testing was not required.

12


7. AUCTION RATE SECURITIES
 
 
At April 30, 2018 and October 31, 2017 , we held investments in auction rate securities from two different issuers that had an aggregate original principal amount of $10.0 million and an amortized cost and fair value of $8.0 million . These two auction rate securities are debt instruments with stated maturities in 2036 and 2050 . The interest rates for these securities are designed to be reset through Dutch auctions approximately every thirty days, but auctions for these securities have not occurred since August 2007 . On May 16, 2018, we sold one of our auction rate securities with an original par value of $5.0 million and an amortized cost basis of $3.0 million for proceeds of $2.9 million .
At April 30, 2018 and October 31, 2017 , there were no unrealized gains or losses on our auction rate securities included in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of taxes (“AOCI”), and the total amount of other-than-temporary impairment credit loss on our auction rate security investments included in our retained earnings was $2.0 million .
Significant Assumptions Used to Determine the Fair Values of Our Auction Rate Securities
Assumption
 
April 30, 2018
 
October 31, 2017
Discount rates
 
L + 0.47% and L + 0.74%
 
L + 0.42% and L + 0.79%
Yields
 
2.15%, L + 2.00%
 
2.15%, L + 2.00%
Average expected lives
 
4 – 10 years
 
4 – 10 years
L – One Month LIBOR
8. INSURANCE
 
 
We use a combination of insured and self-insurance programs to cover workers’ compensation, general liability, automobile liability, property damage, and other insurable risks. For the majority of these insurance programs, we retain the initial $1.0 million of exposure on a per-occurrence basis, either through deductibles or self-insured retentions. Beyond the retained exposures, we have varying primary policy limits ranging between $1.0 million and $5.0 million per occurrence. To cover general liability and automobile liability losses above these primary limits, we maintain commercial umbrella insurance policies that provide aggregate limits of $200.0 million . Our insurance policies generally cover workers’ compensation losses to the full extent of statutory requirements. Additionally, to cover property damage risks above our retained limits, we maintain policies that provide per occurrence limits of $75.0 million . We are also self-insured for certain employee medical and dental plans. We maintain stop-loss insurance for our self-insured medical plan under which we retain up to $0.4 million of exposure on a per-participant, per-year basis with respect to claims.
The adequacy of our reserves for workers’ compensation, general liability, automobile liability, and property damage insurance claims is based upon known trends and events and the actuarial estimates of required reserves considering the most recently completed actuarial reports. We use all available information to develop our best estimate of insurance claims reserves as information is obtained. The results of actuarial studies are used to estimate our insurance rates and insurance reserves for future periods and to adjust reserves, if appropriate, for prior years.
Actuarial Review Performed During the First Quarter of 2018
During the three months ended January 31, 2018 , we performed an actuarial review of the majority of our casualty insurance programs that considered changes in claim developments and claim payment activity for the period commencing May 1, 2017 and ending October 31, 2017 for all policy years in which open claims existed.
The actuarial review indicated the claims reduction and safety initiatives we implemented have had a positive impact on our claims costs in the most recent years. Most notably, over the past two years there has been a decrease in claim frequency for workers’ compensation lost-time claims and general liability bodily injury claims. However, there have been unfavorable developments in ultimate losses beyond our estimates for general liability and workers’ compensation claims related to prior years, as described below.
The actuarial review indicated a continued decrease over the most recent years in the total number of reported claims related to our general liability program, particularly with respect to bodily injury claims. However, in prior year

13


claims we experienced adverse developments that are largely attributable to adjustments related to certain bodily injury claims and to losses for property damage.
We are experiencing a reduced frequency of claims in our workers’ compensation program. However, due to increases in projected costs and severity of claims in certain prior fiscal years, in the first quarter of 2018 we increased our estimate of ultimate losses for workers’ compensation claims. Statutory, regulatory, and legal developments have contributed to the increase in our estimated losses.
Based on the results of the actuarial review and subsequent developments, at January 31, 2018 we increased our total reserves for known claims as well as our estimate of the loss amounts associated with incurred but not reported claims for prior periods by $2.0 million . As we continue to see a similar trend in adverse developments, at April 30, 2018 we increased our reserves by an additional $2.0 million . For the six months ended April 30, 2018, the total increase to our reserves for claims related to prior periods was $4.0 million . This adjustment was $6.0 million lower than the total adjustment related to prior year claims of $10.0 million during the six months ended April 30, 2017.
During the third quarter of 2018, comprehensive actuarial evaluations are expected to be completed for our significant insurance programs using updated claims data, and these evaluations may lead to further adjustments to our insurance reserves.
Insurance Related Balances and Activity
(in millions)
April 30, 2018
 
October 31, 2017
Insurance claim reserves excluding medical and dental
$
495.7

 
$
485.6

Medical and dental claim reserves
10.0

 
9.8

Insurance recoverables
74.9

 
73.1

At April 30, 2018 and October 31, 2017 , insurance recoverables are included in “Other current assets” and “Other noncurrent assets” on the accompanying unaudited consolidated balance sheets.
Instruments Used to Collateralize Our Insurance Obligations
(in millions)
April 30, 2018
 
October 31, 2017
Standby letters of credit
$
136.7

 
$
137.6

Surety bonds
78.2

 
77.5

Restricted insurance deposits
10.4

 
11.2

Total
$
225.3

 
$
226.3


14


9. CREDIT FACILITY
 
 
On September 1, 2017, we refinanced and replaced our then-existing $800.0 million credit facility with a new senior, secured five-year syndicated credit facility (the “ Credit Facility ”), consisting of a $900.0 million revolving line of credit and an $800.0 million amortizing term loan, scheduled to mature on September 1, 2022. The line of credit reduces to $800.0 million after one year. The Credit Facility also provides for the issuance of up to $300.0 million for standby letters of credit and the issuance of up to $75.0 million in swingline advances. The obligations under the Credit Facility are secured on a first-priority basis by a lien on substantially all of our assets and properties, subject to certain exceptions.
Borrowings under the Credit Facility bear interest at a rate equal to 1-month LIBOR plus a spread that is based upon our leverage ratio. The spread ranges from 1.00% to 2.25% for Eurocurrency loans and 0.00% to 1.25% for base rate loans. At April 30, 2018 , the weighted average interest rate on our outstanding borrowings was 4.02% . We also pay a commitment fee, based on our leverage ratio and payable quarterly in arrears, ranging from 0.200% to 0.350% on the average daily unused portion of the line of credit. For purposes of this calculation, irrevocable standby letters of credit, which are issued primarily in conjunction with our insurance programs, and cash borrowings are included as outstanding under the line of credit.
The Credit Facility contains certain covenants, including a maximum leverage ratio of 4.75 to 1.0 , which steps down to 3.50 to 1.0 by July 2020, and a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio of 1.50 to 1.0 , as well as other financial and non-financial covenants. In the event of a material acquisition, as defined in the Credit Facility, we may elect to increase the leverage ratio to 3.75 to 1.0 for a total of four fiscal quarters, provided the leverage ratio had already been reduced to 3.50 to 1.0. Our borrowing capacity is subject to, and limited by, compliance with the covenants described above. At April 30, 2018 , we were in compliance with these covenants.
The Credit Facility also includes customary events of default, including failure to pay principal, interest, or fees when due, failure to comply with covenants, the occurrence of certain material judgments, or a change in control of the Company. If certain events of default occur, including certain cross-defaults, insolvency, change in control, or violation of specific covenants, the lenders can terminate or suspend our access to the Credit Facility and declare all amounts outstanding (including all accrued interest and unpaid fees) to be immediately due and payable, and require that we cash collateralize the outstanding standby letters of credit.
Total deferred financing costs related to the Credit Facility were $18.7 million , consisting of $13.4 million related to the term loan and $5.2 million related to the line of credit, which are being amortized to interest expense over the term of the Credit Facility .
Credit Facility Information
(in millions)
 
April 30, 2018
 
October 31, 2017
Current portion of long-term debt
 
 
 
 
Gross term loan
 
$
20.0

 
$
20.0

Less: unamortized deferred financing costs
 
(3.0
)
 
(3.1
)
Current portion of term loan
 
$
17.0

 
$
16.9

 
 
 
 
 
Long-term debt
 
 
 
 
Gross term loan
 
$
760.0

 
$
780.0

Less: unamortized deferred financing costs
 
(8.4
)
 
(9.9
)
Total noncurrent portion of term loan
 
751.6

 
770.1

Line of credit (1)(2)
 
338.7

 
391.2

Long-term debt
 
$
1,090.3

 
$
1,161.3

(1) Standby letters of credit amounted to $145.5 million at April 30, 2018 .

(2) At April 30, 2018 , we had borrowing capacity of $404.5 million , however covenant restrictions limited our actual borrowing capacity to $313.4 million .


15


Term Loan Maturities
During the first quarter, we made $20.0 million of principal payments. As of April 30, 2018 , the following principal payments are required under the term loan.
(in millions)
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
Debt maturities
 
$
40.0

 
$
60.0

 
$
120.0

 
$
560.0

Interest Rate Swaps
We enter into interest rate swaps to manage the interest rate risk associated with our floating-rate, LIBOR-based borrowings under our Credit Facility . Under these arrangements, we typically pay a fixed interest rate in exchange for LIBOR-based variable interest throughout the life of the agreement. We initially report the derivative’s mark-to-market gain or loss as a component of AOCI and subsequently reclassify the gain or loss into earnings when the hedged transactions occur and affect earnings. Interest payables and receivables under the swap agreements are accrued and recorded as adjustments to interest expense. All of our interest rate swaps were designated and accounted for as cash flow hedges from inception. See Note 6 , “Fair Value of Financial Instruments,” regarding the valuation of our interest rate swaps.
During April 2018, we elected to terminate all of our interest rate swaps and received cash proceeds of $25.9 million from the swap counterparties upon termination. We classified the cash proceeds as an operating activity on our consolidated statements of cash flows. We subsequently entered into new forward-starting interest rate swaps, as summarized below.
Notional Amounts
 
Fixed Interest Rates
 
Effective Dates
 
Maturity Dates
$ 90.0 million
 
2.83%
 
November 1, 2018
 
April 30, 2021
$ 90.0 million
 
2.84%
 
November 1, 2018
 
October 31, 2021
$ 130.0 million
 
2.86%
 
November 1, 2018
 
April 30, 2022
$ 130.0 million
 
2.84%
 
November 1, 2018
 
September 1, 2022
At April 30, 2018 , the realized gain recorded in AOCI was $18.6 million , net of taxes of $7.4 million , which will be amortized to interest expense as interest payments are made over the term of our Credit Facility. At October 31, 2017 , amounts recorded in AOCI were $1.7 million , net of taxes of $1.2 million . Additionally, at April 30, 2018 , the amount expected to be reclassified from AOCI to earnings during the next twelve months was $3.8 million , net of taxes of $1.5 million .

16


10. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
 
 
Letters of Credit and Surety Bonds
We use letters of credit and surety bonds to secure certain commitments related to insurance programs and for other purposes. As of April 30, 2018 , these letters of credit and surety bonds totaled $145.5 million and $465.7 million , respectively.
Guarantees
In some instances, we offer clients guaranteed energy savings under certain energy savings contracts. At April 30, 2018 , total guarantees were $179.4 million and extend through 2038 . We accrue for the estimated cost of guarantees when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Historically, we have not incurred any material losses in connection with these guarantees.
In connection with an unconsolidated joint venture in which one of our subsidiaries has a 33% ownership interest, that subsidiary and the other joint venture partners have each jointly and severally guaranteed the obligations of the joint venture to perform under certain contracts extending through 2019. Annual revenues relating to the underlying contracts are approximately $35 million . Should the joint venture be unable to perform under these contracts, the joint venture partners would be jointly and severally liable for any losses incurred by the client due to the failure to perform.
Sales Tax Audits
We collect sales tax from clients and remit those collections to the applicable states. When clients fail to pay their invoices, including the amount of any sales tax that we paid on their behalf, in some cases we are entitled to seek a refund of that amount of sales tax from the applicable state. Sales tax laws and regulations enacted by the various states are subject to interpretation, and our compliance with such laws is routinely subject to audit and review by such states. Audit risk is concentrated in several states, and these states are conducting ongoing audits. The outcomes of ongoing and any future audits and changes in the states’ interpretation of the sales tax laws and regulations could materially adversely impact our results of operations.
Legal Matters
We are a party to a number of lawsuits, claims, and proceedings incident to the operation of our business, including those pertaining to labor and employment, contracts, personal injury, and other matters, some of which allege substantial monetary damages. Some of these actions may be brought as class actions on behalf of a class or purported class of employees.
At April 30, 2018 , the total amount accrued for all probable litigation losses where a reasonable estimate of the loss could be made was $8.4 million , including $3.1 million accrued during the three months ended April 30, 2018 . This $8.4 million also includes an accrual of $3.8 million in connection with the Hussein case discussed below.
Litigation outcomes are difficult to predict and the estimation of probable losses requires the analysis of multiple possible outcomes that often depend on judgments about potential actions by third parties. If one or more matters are resolved in a particular period in an amount in excess of, or in a manner different than, what we anticipated, this could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
We do not accrue for contingent losses that, in our judgment, are considered to be reasonably possible but not probable. The estimation of reasonably possible losses also requires the analysis of multiple possible outcomes that often depend on judgments about potential actions by third parties. Our management currently estimates the range of loss for all reasonably possible losses for which a reasonable estimate of the loss can be made is between zero and $5 million . Factors underlying this estimated range of loss may change from time to time, and actual results may vary significantly from this estimate.
In some cases, although a loss is probable or reasonably possible, we cannot reasonably estimate the maximum potential losses for probable matters or the range of losses for reasonably possible matters. Therefore, our accrual for probable losses and our estimated range of loss for reasonably possible losses do not represent our maximum possible exposure.

17


While the results of these lawsuits, claims, and proceedings cannot be predicted with any certainty, our management believes that the final outcome of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
Certain Legal Proceedings
        
Certain lawsuits to which we are a party are discussed below. In determining whether to include any particular lawsuit or other proceeding, we consider both quantitative and qualitative factors. These factors include, but are not limited to: the amount of damages and the nature of any other relief sought in the proceeding; if such damages and other relief are specified, our view of the merits of the claims; whether the action is or purports to be a class action, and our view of the likelihood that a class will be certified by the court; the jurisdiction in which the proceeding is pending; and the potential impact of the proceeding on our reputation.

The Consolidated Cases of Bucio and Martinez v. ABM Janitorial Services filed on April 7, 2006, in the Superior Court of California, County of San Francisco (the “Bucio case”)

The Bucio case is a class action pending in San Francisco Superior Court that alleges we failed to provide legally required meal periods and make additional premium payments for such meal periods, pay split shift premiums when owed, and reimburse janitors for travel expenses. On April 19, 2011 , the trial court held a hearing on plaintiffs’ motion to certify the class. At the conclusion of that hearing, the trial court denied plaintiffs’ motion to certify the class. On May 11, 2011 , the plaintiffs filed a motion to reconsider, which was denied. The plaintiffs appealed the class certification issues. The trial court stayed the underlying lawsuit pending the decision in the appeal. The Court of Appeal of the State of California, First Appellate District (the “Court of Appeal”), heard oral arguments on November 7, 2017. On December 11, 2017, the Court of Appeal reversed the trial court’s order denying class certification and remanded the matter for certification of a meal period, travel expense reimbursement, and split shift class. The case was remitted to the trial court for further proceedings on class certification, discovery, dispositive motions, and trial.

Hussein and Hirsi v. Air Serv Corporation filed on January 20, 2016, pending in the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington at Seattle (the “Hussein case”) and

Isse et al. v. Air Serv Corporation filed on February 7, 2017 in the Superior Court of Washington for King County (the “Isse” case)

The Hussein case was a certified class action involving a class of certain hourly Air Serv employees at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport in SeaTac, Washington. The plaintiffs alleged that Air Serv violated a minimum wage requirement in an ordinance applicable to certain employers in the local city of SeaTac (the “Ordinance”). Plaintiffs sought retroactive wages, double damages, interest, and attorneys’ fees. This matter was removed to federal court. In a separate lawsuit brought by Filo Foods, LLC, Alaska Airlines, and several other employers at SeaTac airport, the King County Superior Court issued a decision that invalidated the Ordinance as it applied to workers at SeaTac airport. Subsequently, the Washington Supreme Court reversed the Superior Court’s decision. On February 7, 2017, the Isse case was filed against Air Serv on behalf of 60 individual plaintiffs (who would otherwise be members of the Hussein class), who alleged failure to comply with both the minimum wage provision and the sick and safe time provision of the Ordinance. The Isse plaintiffs sought retroactive wages and sick benefits, double damages for wages and sick benefits, interest, and attorneys’ fees. The Isse case later expanded to approximately 220 individual plaintiffs.

In mediations on November 2 and 3, 2017, and without admitting liability in either matter, we agreed to settle the Hussein and Isse cases for a combined total o f $8.3 million , inclusive of damages, interest, attorneys’ fees, and employer payroll taxes. Eligible employees will be able to participate in either the Hussein or Isse settlements, but cannot recover in both settlements. The settlements in both cases require court approval because of the nature of the claims being released. On December 8, 2017, the Superior Court of Washington for King County approved the settlement agreement for the 220 Isse plaintiffs, and we subsequently made a settlement payment of $4.5 million to the Isse plaintiffs in January 2018. The Hussein settlement documents have been presented to the district court for approval.


18


Castro and Marmolejo v. ABM Industries, Inc., et al., filed on October 24, 2014, pending in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California (the “Castro” case)

On October 24, 2014, Plaintiff Marley Castro filed a class action lawsuit alleging that ABM did not reimburse janitorial employees in California for using their personal cell phones for work-related purposes, in violation of California Labor Code section 2802. On January 23, 2015, Plaintiff Lucia Marmolejo was added to the case as a named plaintiff. On October 27, 2017, plaintiffs moved for class certification seeking to represent a class of all employees who were, are, or will be employed by ABM in the State of California with the Employee Master Job Description Code “Cleaner” (hereafter referred to as “ Cleaner Employees ”) beginning from October 24, 2010. ABM filed its opposition to class certification on November 27, 2017. On January 26, 2018, the district court granted plaintiffs’ motion for class certification. The court rejected plaintiffs’ proposed class, instead certifying three classes that the court formulated on its own: (1) all employees who were, are, or will be employed by ABM in the State of California as Cleaner Employees who used a personal cell phone to punch in and out of the EPAY system and who (a) worked at an ABM facility that did not provide a biometric clock and (b) were not offered an ABM-provided cell phone during the period beginning on January 1, 2012, through the date of notice to the Class Members that a class has been certified in this action; (2) all employees who were, are, or will be employed by ABM in the State of California as Cleaner Employees who used a personal cell phone to report unusual or suspicious circumstances to supervisors and were not offered (a) an ABM-provided cell phone or (b) a two-way radio during the period beginning four years prior to the filing of the original complaint, October 24, 2014, through the date of notice to the Class Members that a class has been certified in this action; and (3) all employees who were, are, or will be employed by ABM in the State of California as Cleaner Employees who used a personal cell phone to respond to communications from supervisors and were not offered (a) an ABM-provided cell phone or (b) a two-way radio during the period beginning four years prior to the filing of the original complaint, October 24, 2014, through the date of notice to the Class Members that a class has been certified in this action. On February 9, 2018, ABM filed a petition for permission to appeal the district court’s order granting class certification with the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, which was denied on April 30, 2018. On March 20, 2018, ABM moved to compel arbitration of the claims of certain absent class members pursuant to the terms of three collective bargaining agreements. In response to that motion, the district court on May 14, 2018 modified the class definition to exclude all claims arising after the operative date(s) of the applicable collective bargaining agreements (which is June 1, 2016 for one agreement and May 1, 2016 for the other two agreements), but otherwise denied the motion.
11. INCOME TAXES
 
 
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “ Tax Act ”), which was enacted on December 22, 2017, represents the most significant overhaul of the U.S. tax code in more than 30 years. Among other provisions, the Tax Act provides for a reduction of the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% and a “transition tax” to be levied on the deemed repatriation of indefinitely reinvested earnings of international subsidiaries. Since we have an October 31 fiscal year-end, the lower corporate income tax rate will be phased in, resulting in a U.S. statutory federal rate of 23.3% for fiscal 2018 and 21% for subsequent fiscal years. Other provisions under the Tax Act will not be effective for us until fiscal 2019, including limitations on deductibility of interest and executive compensation as well as a new minimum tax on Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”).
Due to the complexities of implementing the provisions of the Tax Act , the staff of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission issued Staff Accounting Bulletin 118 (“SAB 118”), which provides guidance on accounting for tax effects of the Tax Act and permits a measurement period not to exceed one year from the enactment date for companies to complete the required analyses and accounting. As permitted under SAB 118, some elements of the tax adjustments recorded in the first quarter of 2018 due to the enactment of the Tax Act , including the remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities and the transition tax, are based on reasonable estimates and are considered provisional.
During the three months ended January 31, 2018 we remeasured certain deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the new rates at which they are expected to reverse in the future and recorded a net discrete tax benefit of $28.7 million . In addition, we recorded an expense of $7.0 million for the one-time transition tax on the deemed repatriation of indefinitely reinvested earnings of our international subsidiaries. We plan to reinvest our foreign earnings to fund future non-U.S. growth and expansion, and we do not anticipate remitting such earnings to the United States. While U.S. federal tax expense has been recognized as a result of the Tax Act, no deferred tax liabilities with respect to state income taxes or foreign withholding taxes have been recognized.

19


We continue to analyze certain aspects of the Tax Act and refine our calculation of the impact on our deferred tax balances, which could potentially affect the measurement of these balances. The provisional amount recorded is based on our estimate of the expected reversals of certain tax assets and liabilities, which may be revised in future quarters during the one-year measurement period as additional information becomes available. The final impact related to the one-time transition tax may differ from our current estimate due to the complexity of calculating and supporting U.S. tax attributes involved in foreign tax credit calculations, such as accumulated foreign earnings and profits, foreign tax paid, and other tax components. Changes to our estimates over the one-year measurement period could be material due to, among other things: changes in interpretations of the Tax Act; future legislative action to address questions that arise from the Tax Act; changes in accounting standards for income taxes or related interpretations in response to the Tax Act; or any updates or changes to estimates we have utilized to calculate the provisional amounts. We did not record any changes to the provisional amounts during the three months ended April 30, 2018 .
Beginning in fiscal year 2019, provisions under GILTI could result in incremental U.S. federal tax on our foreign subsidiaries’ income in excess of an allowed return on certain tangible property. The Financial Accounting Standards Board has determined that filers have a policy choice to account for this tax on either a period basis or a deferred tax basis. We are still evaluating the impacts of GILTI on our business model and have not yet made any accounting adjustments or policy decisions regarding this new source of incremental U.S. taxable income.
Our quarterly provision for income taxes from continuing operations is calculated using an estimated annual effective income tax rate, which is adjusted for discrete items that occur during the reporting period. Our income taxes for the three months ended April 30, 2018 were favorably impacted by the reduction of the federal corporate income tax rate as a result of the Tax Act and by a discrete tax benefit of $2.0 million related to tax deductions on energy efficient government buildings, partially offset by a $1.5 million reduction in certain tax credits, including the prior year Work Opportunity Tax Credits (“WOTC”) for new hires. Our income taxes for the six months ended April 30, 2018 were favorably impacted by a net discrete tax benefit of $21.7 million related to the enactment of the Tax Act , $2.3 million related to tax deductions on energy efficient government buildings, and $1.5 million of excess tax benefits related to the vesting of share-based compensation awards. These benefits were partially offset by a $1.5 million reduction in certain tax credits, including the prior year WOTC for new hires.
Our income taxes for the three and six months ended April 30, 2017 were favorably impacted by $2.1 million of excess tax benefits related to the vesting of share-based compensation awards and the 2017 WOTC for new hires.

20


12. SEGMENT INFORMATION
 
 
Effective November 1, 2017, we reorganized our reportable segments to reflect the integration of GCA into our industry group model. Our reportable segments consist of Business & Industry (“B&I”), Aviation, Technology & Manufacturing (“T&M”), Education, Technical Solutions, and Healthcare, as further described below. Refer to Note 2 , “Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies,” for information related to our former Government Services business.
REPORTABLE SEGMENTS AND DESCRIPTIONS
B&I
B&I, our largest reportable segment, encompasses janitorial, facilities engineering, and parking services for commercial real estate properties and sports and entertainment venues. B&I also provides vehicle maintenance and other services to rental car providers (“Vehicle Services Contracts”).
Aviation
Aviation supports airlines and airports with services ranging from parking and janitorial to passenger assistance, catering logistics, air cabin maintenance, and transportation.
T&M
T&M combines our legacy Industrial & Manufacturing business, which was previously included in our B&I segment, with our legacy High Tech industry group, which was previously reported as part of our legacy Emerging Industries Group. T&M provides janitorial, facilities engineering, and parking services.
Education
Education delivers janitorial, custodial, landscaping and grounds, facilities engineering, and parking services for public school districts, private schools, colleges, and universities. This business was previously reported as part of our legacy Emerging Industries Group.
Technical Solutions
Technical Solutions specializes in mechanical and electrical services. These services can also be leveraged for cross-selling across all of our industry groups, both domestically and internationally.
Healthcare
Healthcare offers janitorial, facilities management, clinical engineering, food and nutrition, laundry and linen, parking and guest services, and patient transportation services at traditional hospitals and non-acute facilities. This business was previously reported as part of our legacy Emerging Industries Group.

21


Financial Information by Reportable Segment
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
Six Months Ended April 30,
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Business & Industry
$
723.2

 
$
637.5

 
$
1,445.3

 
$
1,293.0

Aviation
245.4

 
232.1

 
501.6

 
464.0

Technology & Manufacturing
227.5

 
161.4

 
459.5

 
332.9

Education
206.3

 
65.2

 
412.6

 
132.2

Technical Solutions
108.5

 
110.8

 
212.5

 
218.5

Healthcare
69.9

 
60.6

 
137.6

 
122.3

Government Services

 
42.9

 

 
74.3

 
$
1,580.8

 
$
1,310.5

 
$
3,169.2

 
$
2,637.2

Operating profit (loss)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Business & Industry
$
43.5

 
$
36.0

 
$
72.0

 
$
63.2

Aviation
5.1

 
6.8

 
10.9

 
11.4

Technology & Manufacturing
16.0

 
12.1

 
32.9

 
24.8

Education
10.6

 
3.6

 
19.8

 
7.2

Technical Solutions
7.5

 
10.2

 
13.0

 
18.1

Healthcare
2.7

 
2.4

 
5.4

 
4.9

Government Services

 
18.2

 
(0.8
)
 
20.0

Corporate
(37.1
)
 
(36.4
)
 
(84.5
)
 
(71.0
)
Adjustment for income from unconsolidated affiliates, net, included in Aviation and Government Services
(1.0
)
 
(1.1
)
 
(1.6
)
 
(2.4
)
Adjustment for tax deductions for energy efficient government buildings, included in Technical Solutions
(2.0
)
 
(0.8
)
 
(2.3
)
 
(1.4
)
 
45.3

 
51.0

 
64.8

 
74.8

Income from unconsolidated affiliates, net
1.0

 
0.9

 
1.6

 
2.3

Interest expense
(13.8
)
 
(3.0
)
 
(28.1
)
 
(6.3
)
Income from continuing operations before income taxes
$
32.5

 
$
48.9

 
$
38.2

 
$
70.9

The accounting policies for our segments are the same as those disclosed within our significant accounting policies in Note 2 , “Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies.” Our management evaluates the performance of each reportable segment based on its respective operating profit results, which include the allocation of certain centrally incurred costs. Corporate expenses not allocated to segments include certain CEO and other finance and human resource departmental expenses, certain information technology costs, share-based compensation, certain legal costs and settlements, restructuring and related costs, certain adjustments resulting from actuarial developments of self-insurance reserves, and direct acquisition costs.

22


ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is intended to facilitate an understanding of the results of operations and financial condition of ABM Industries Incorporated and its subsidiaries (collectively referred to as “ABM,” “we,” “us,” “our,” or the “Company”). This MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our unaudited consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes (“Financial Statements”) and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2017 (“Annual Report”), which has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). This MD&A contains forward-looking statements about our business, operations, and industry that involve risks and uncertainties, such as statements regarding our plans, objectives, expectations, and intentions. Our future results and financial condition may be materially different from those we currently anticipate. See “Forward-Looking Statements” for more information.
Throughout the MD&A, amounts and percentages may not recalculate due to rounding. Unless otherwise indicated, all information in the MD&A and references to years are based on our fiscal year, which ends on October 31 .
Business Overview
ABM is a leading provider of integrated facility services, customized by industry, with a mission to make a difference, every person, every day .
2020 Vision
In September 2015, we announced a comprehensive transformation initiative (“ 2020 Vision ”) intended to drive long-term profitable growth through an industry-based go-to-market approach. Our 2020 Vision involves three phases: During Phase 1, completed on November 1, 2016, we realigned our organization; in Phase 2, which is continuing today, we are focused on improvements to our operational framework to promote efficiencies and process enhancements; and in Phase 3, on the foundation of benefits realized from Phases 1 and 2, we anticipate accelerating growth with our industry-based, go-to-market service model.
2020 Vision Developments in 2018
During the second half of 2018, we expect to continue focusing on certain aspects of our business practices to further build the foundation upon which we deliver leading industry-based facility services. We anticipate that we will continue to roll out enterprise-wide standard operating procedures (the “ ABM Way ”) and improve the processes around our account planning, labor management, manager development, and safety initiatives. To achieve this, we are focusing on long term, profitable growth relating to both existing clients and targeted opportunities, and we have launched a “Tag Pricer” tool that will help us capture work orders more efficiently. In addition, we continue consolidating our procurement activities and investing in technology platforms to help drive and sustain 2020 Vision performance.
Developments and Trends
Economic Labor Outlook
The U.S. economy continues to demonstrate positive underlying fundamentals, with expanding gross domestic product growth and improving employment conditions, which have led to historically low levels of both unemployment and underemployment across the country. These factors have contributed to the lower availability of qualified labor for our business and higher turnover in certain markets, as our employees have more job opportunities both inside and outside our industry. This in turn has caused, and may continue to cause, higher labor and related personnel costs.
United States Tax Reform
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “ Tax Act ”), which was enacted on December 22, 2017, represents the most significant overhaul of the U.S. tax code in more than 30 years. Among other provisions, the Tax Act provides for a reduction of the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% and a “transition tax” to be levied on the deemed repatriation of indefinitely reinvested earnings of international subsidiaries. Since we have an October 31 fiscal year-end, the lower corporate income tax rate will be phased in, resulting in a U.S. statutory federal rate of 23.3% for fiscal 2018 and 21% for subsequent fiscal years. Other provisions under the Tax Act will not be effective for us until fiscal 2019, including limitations on deductibility of interest and executive compensation as well as a new minimum tax on

23


Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”). As a result, in 2019 we expect our effective tax rate to increase from the 2018 rate. The estimated impact of the Tax Act , as summarized below for the six months ended April 30, 2018 , is further described in Note 11 , “Income Taxes,” in the Financial Statements.
 
Six Months Ended
(in millions)
April 30, 2018
Remeasurement of U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities
$
28.7

Transition tax on non-U.S. subsidiaries’ earnings
(7.0
)
Total impact of the Tax Act on the benefit for income taxes
$
21.7

Due to the complexities of implementing the provisions of the Tax Act , the staff of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission issued Staff Accounting Bulletin 118 (“SAB 118”), which provides guidance on accounting for tax effects of the Tax Act and permits a measurement period not to exceed one year from the enactment date for companies to complete the required analyses and accounting. We continue to analyze certain aspects of the Tax Act and refine our calculation of the impact on our deferred tax balances, which could potentially affect the measurement of these balances. The provisional amount recorded is based on our estimate of the expected reversals of certain tax assets and liabilities, which may be revised in future quarters during the one-year measurement period as additional information becomes available. The final impact related to the one-time transition tax may differ from our current estimate due to the complexity of calculating and supporting U.S. tax attributes involved in foreign tax credit calculations, such as accumulated foreign earnings and profits, foreign tax paid, and other tax components. Changes to our estimates over the one-year measurement period could be material due to, among other things: changes in interpretations of the Tax Act; future legislative action to address questions that arise from the Tax Act; changes in accounting standards for income taxes or related interpretations in response to the Tax Act; or any updates or changes to estimates we have utilized to calculate the provisional amounts. We did not record any changes to the provisional amounts during the three months ended April 30, 2018 .
Beginning in fiscal year 2019, provisions under GILTI could result in incremental U.S. federal tax on our foreign subsidiaries’ income in excess of an allowed return on certain tangible property. The Financial Accounting Standards Board has determined that filers have a policy choice to account for this tax on either a period basis or a deferred tax basis. We are still evaluating the impacts of GILTI on our business model and have not yet made any accounting adjustments or policy decisions regarding this new source of incremental U.S. taxable income.
GCA Services Group
On September 1, 2017, we acquired GCA Services Group (“GCA”), a provider of integrated facility services to educational institutions and commercial facilities, for approximately $1.3 billion , consisting of $837.5 million in cash (revised during the second quarter of 2018 to reflect a post-closing purchase price adjustment related to a net working capital settlement) and approximately 9.4 million shares of ABM common stock with a fair value of $421.3 million at closing. Refer to Note 3 , “Acquisitions,” in the Financial Statements for more information on this transaction.
Our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) and statements of cash flows include GCA’s results of operations in the three and six months ended April 30, 2018 , but exclude GCA’s results of operations in the three and six months ended April 30, 2017 , as that was prior to the acquisition date. During the three and six months ended April 30, 2018 , we recognized total incremental revenues from GCA of $256.4 million and $508.0 million , respectively, as summarized below.

Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
(in millions)
April 30, 2018
 
April 30, 2018
Education
$
141.5

 
$
281.9

Technology & Manufacturing
60.6

 
119.2

Business & Industry
42.5

 
83.2

Healthcare
7.6

 
15.1

Aviation
4.3

 
8.6

Total
$
256.4

 
$
508.0


24


Following this acquisition, we initiated a restructuring program to achieve cost synergies from our combined operations. We include these costs within corporate expenses. We do not expect to incur significant severance expenses related to GCA restructuring in the future.

Three Months Ended

Six Months Ended
 

(in millions)
April 30, 2018

April 30, 2018
 
Cumulative
Employee Severance
$
0.7


$
9.5

 
$
11.2

Other Project Fees
2.6


3.5

 
3.5

External Support Fees


2.0

 
2.0

Total
$
3.3


$
15.0

 
$
16.6

Segment Reporting

Effective November 1, 2017, we reorganized our reportable segments to reflect the integration of GCA into our industry group model. Our reportable segments consist of Business & Industry (“B&I”), Aviation, Technology & Manufacturing (“T&M”), Education, Technical Solutions, and Healthcare, as further described below.
REPORTABLE SEGMENTS AND DESCRIPTIONS
FY18BNIA01.JPG
B&I, our largest reportable segment, encompasses janitorial, facilities engineering, and parking services for commercial real estate properties and sports and entertainment venues. B&I also provides vehicle maintenance and other services to rental car providers (“Vehicle Services Contracts”).
FY18AVIATIONA02.JPG
Aviation supports airlines and airports with services ranging from parking and janitorial to passenger assistance, catering logistics, air cabin maintenance, and transportation.
FY18TNMA01.JPG
T&M combines our legacy Industrial & Manufacturing business, which was previously included in our B&I segment, with our legacy High Tech industry group, which was previously reported as part of our legacy Emerging Industries Group. T&M provides janitorial, facilities engineering, and parking services.
FY18EDUCATIONA02.JPG
Education delivers janitorial, custodial, landscaping and grounds, facilities engineering, and parking services for public school districts, private schools, colleges, and universities. This business was previously reported as part of our legacy Emerging Industries Group.
FY18TECHNICALSOLUTIONSA01.JPG
Technical Solutions specializes in mechanical and electrical services. These services can also be leveraged for cross-selling across all of our industry groups, both domestically and internationally.
FY18HEALTHCAREA01.JPG
Healthcare offers janitorial, facilities management, clinical engineering, food and nutrition, laundry and linen, parking and guest services, and patient transportation services at traditional hospitals and non-acute facilities. This business was previously reported as part of our legacy Emerging Industries Group.

25


Prior Year Reclassifications

Effective with the reorganization of our reportable segments, we have revised our prior period segment information to conform with our fiscal 2018 presentation. These changes had no impact on our previously reported consolidated balance sheets, statements of comprehensive income (loss), or statements of cash flows.

Government Services Business

We sold our Government Services business on May 31, 2017. The reported results for this business are through the date of sale and future results could include run-off costs. As this business has been sold and is no longer part of our ongoing operations, we have excluded a discussion of its results for the periods in this report.
Insurance
During the three months ended January 31, 2018 , we performed an actuarial review of the majority of our casualty insurance programs that considered changes in claim developments and claim payment activity for the period commencing May 1, 2017 and ending October 31, 2017 for all policy years in which open claims existed. The actuarial review indicated the claims reduction and safety initiatives we implemented have had a positive impact on our claims costs in the most recent years. Most notably, over the past two years there has been a decrease in claim frequency for workers’ compensation lost-time claims and general liability bodily injury claims. However, there have been unfavorable developments in ultimate losses beyond our estimates for general liability and workers’ compensation claims related to prior years.
Based on the results of the actuarial review and subsequent developments, at January 31, 2018 we increased our total reserves for known claims as well as our estimate of the loss amounts associated with incurred but not reported claims for prior periods by $2.0 million . As we continue to see a similar trend in adverse developments, at April 30, 2018 we increased our reserves by an additional $2.0 million . For the six months ended April 30, 2018, the total increase to our reserves for claims related to prior periods was $4.0 million . This adjustment was $6.0 million lower than the total adjustment related to prior year claims of $10.0 million during the six months ended April 30, 2017. During the third quarter of 2018, comprehensive actuarial evaluations are expected to be completed for our significant insurance programs using updated claims data, and these evaluations may lead to further adjustments to our insurance reserves.
Key Financial Highlights
Revenues increased by $270.3 million , or 20.6% , including $256.4 million of incremental revenues from the GCA acquisition, during the three months ended April 30, 2018 , as compared to the three months ended April 30, 2017 .
Operating profit decreased by $5.7 million , or 11.2% , during the three months ended April 30, 2018 , as compared to the three months ended April 30, 2017 . The decrease in operating profit is primarily attributable to higher amortization expense and incremental selling, general and administrative expenses associated with the GCA acquisition, the absence of the impairment recovery recognized during the three months ended April 30, 2017, and an increase in wages and related personnel costs due to a tight labor market. This decrease was partially offset by higher operating profit in our Education and T&M segments associated with the GCA acquisition.
Interest expense increased by $10.8 million during the three months ended April 30, 2018 , as compared to the three months ended April 30, 2017 , primarily related to increased indebtedness incurred to fund the GCA acquisition and higher relative interest rates under our credit facility.
Our income taxes from continuing operations for the six months ended April 30, 2018 were favorably impacted by a net discrete tax benefit of $21.7 million related to the Tax Act .
Net cash provided by operating activities was $133.3 million during the six months ended April 30, 2018 .
Dividends of $23.0 million were paid to shareholders, and dividends totaling $0.350 per common share were declared during the six months ended April 30, 2018 .
At April 30, 2018 , total outstanding borrowings under our credit facility were $1.1 billion , and we had up to $404.5 million of borrowing capacity under our credit facility; however, covenant restrictions limited our actual borrowing capacity to $313.4 million .

26


Results of Operations

Three Months Ended April 30, 2018 Compared with the Three Months Ended April 30, 2017
Consolidated
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
 
 
 
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
Increase / (Decrease)
Revenues
$
1,580.8

 
$
1,310.5

 
$
270.3

 
20.6%
Operating expenses
1,405.8

 
1,164.6

 
241.2

 
20.7%
Gross margin
11.1
%
 
11.1
%
 
(6) bps
 
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
107.8

 
100.7

 
7.1

 
7.0%
Restructuring and related expenses
5.3

 
5.8

 
(0.5
)
 
(8.4)%
Amortization of intangible assets
16.7

 
5.8

 
10.9

 
NM*
Impairment recovery

 
(17.4
)
 
17.4

 
NM*
Operating profit
45.3

 
51.0

 
(5.7
)
 
(11.2)%
Income from unconsolidated affiliates, net
1.0

 
0.9

 
0.1

 
8.0%
Interest expense
(13.8
)
 
(3.0
)
 
(10.8
)
 
NM*
Income from continuing operations before income taxes
32.5

 
48.9

 
(16.4
)
 
(33.6)%
Income tax provision
(7.1
)
 
(17.3
)
 
10.2

 
58.9%
Income from continuing operations
25.4

 
31.6

 
(6.2
)
 
(19.8)%
Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes
1.2

 
(0.4
)
 
1.6

 
NM*
Net income
26.6

 
31.3

 
(4.7
)
 
(14.9)%
Other comprehensive income (loss)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in fair value of interest rate swaps
4.6

 

 
4.6

 
NM*
Foreign currency translation
(4.5
)
 
3.0

 
(7.5
)
 
NM*
Income tax provision
(1.2
)
 

 
(1.2
)
 
NM*
Comprehensive income
$
25.5

 
$
34.3

 
$
(8.8
)
 
(25.6)%
*Not meaningful
Revenues
Revenues increased by $270.3 million , or 20.6% , during the three months ended April 30, 2018 , as compared to the three months ended April 30, 2017 . The increase in revenues was primarily attributable to $256.4 million of incremental revenues from the GCA acquisition as well as organic growth in B&I. This increase was partially offset by the sale of our Government Services business on May 31, 2017.
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses increased by $241.2 million , or 20.7% , during the three months ended April 30, 2018 , as compared to the three months ended April 30, 2017 . The increase was primarily attributable to $227.6 million of incremental operating expenses from the GCA acquisition and an increase in wages and related personnel costs due to a tight labor market. Gross margin remained relatively flat at 11.1% .

27


Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by $7.1 million , or 7.0% , during the three months ended April 30, 2018 , as compared to the three months ended April 30, 2017 . The increase in selling, general and administrative expenses was primarily related to:
$9.9 million of incremental expenses related to the GCA acquisition;
a $3.1 million increase in legal settlement costs ; and
a $2.5 million increase in technology investments.
This increase was partially offset by:
a $2.9 million decrease in compensation and related expenses mainly due to the reversal of certain incentive plans;
a $2.8 million decrease in medical and dental insurance expense as a result of actuarial evaluations performed in the three months ended April 30, 2018; and
a $1.0 million decrease in rental expense due to office consolidations in the prior year.
Restructuring and Related Expenses
Restructuring and related expenses decreased by $0.5 million during the three months ended April 30, 2018 , as compared to the three months ended April 30, 2017 , as a result of the completion of our 2020 Vision organizational realignment, partially offset by restructuring related to the GCA acquisition.
Amortization of Intangible Assets
Amortization of intangible assets increased by $10.9 million during the three months ended April 30, 2018 , as compared to the three months ended April 30, 2017 , as a result of the amortization of acquired intangible assets associated with the GCA acquisition.
Impairment Recovery
On May 31, 2017, we sold our Government Services business for $35.5 million. Based on the initial offer of $35.0 million received during the second quarter of 2017, we recorded a $17.4 million impairment recovery to adjust the fair value of certain previously impaired assets.
Interest Expense
Interest expense increased by $10.8 million during the three months ended April 30, 2018 , as compared to the three months ended April 30, 2017 , primarily related to increased indebtedness incurred to fund the GCA acquisition and higher relative interest rates under our credit facility.
Income Taxes from Continuing Operations
The effective tax rates on income from continuing operations for the three months ended April 30, 2018 and 2017 were 21.8% and 35.3% , respectively. The effective tax rate for the three months ended April 30, 2018 was favorably impacted by the reduction of the federal corporate income tax rate as a result of the Tax Act and by a discrete tax benefit of $2.0 million related to tax deductions on energy efficient government buildings, partially offset by a $1.5 million reduction in certain tax credits, including the prior year Work Opportunity Tax Credits (“WOTC”) for new hires.
Discontinued Operations, Net of Taxes
During the three months ended April 30, 2018 we had income from discontinued operations, net of taxes, of $1.2 million , compared with a loss from discontinued operations, net of taxes, of $0.4 million during the three months ended April 30, 2017 , a change of $1.6 million . This change was due to an insurance reimbursement on a legal settlement received during the three months ended April 30, 2018 .

28


Change in Fair Value of Interest Rate Swaps
The fair value of interest rate swaps increased by $4.6 million during the three months ended April 30, 2018 , as compared to the three months ended April 30, 2017 . The increase was primarily due to rising interest rates and an increase in the notional amount of interest rate swaps. In November 2017, we entered into three additional interest rate swaps with a combined notional amount of $500.0 million and fixed interest rates of 1.65% and 1.69%. During April 2018, we elected to terminate all of our interest rate swaps and received cash proceeds of $25.9 million. We will amortize the resulting gain from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (“AOCI”) to interest expense over the term of our Credit Facility.
Foreign Currency Translation
During the three months ended April 30, 2018 we recognized as a component of our comprehensive income a foreign currency translation loss of $4.5 million compared with a gain of $3.0 million during the three months ended April 30, 2017 . This change was related to the strengthening of the U.S. Dollar (“USD”) against the Great Britain Pound (“GBP”) during the three months ended April 30, 2018 . Future gains and losses on foreign currency translation will be dependent upon changes in the relative value of foreign currencies to the USD and the extent of our foreign assets and liabilities.

29


Segment Information
Financial Information for Each Reportable Segment
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
 
 
 
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
Increase / (Decrease)
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Business & Industry
$
723.2

 
$
637.5

 
$
85.7

 
13.4%
Aviation
245.4

 
232.1

 
13.3

 
5.8%
Technology & Manufacturing
227.5

 
161.4

 
66.1

 
41.0%
Education
206.3

 
65.2

 
141.1

 
NM*
Technical Solutions
108.5

 
110.8

 
(2.3
)
 
(2.1)%
Healthcare
69.9

 
60.6

 
9.3

 
15.3%
Government Services

 
42.9

 
(42.9
)
 
NM*
 
$
1,580.8

 
$
1,310.5

 
$
270.3

 
20.6%
Operating profit (loss)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Business & Industry
$
43.5

 
$
36.0

 
$
7.5

 
20.7%
Operating profit margin
6.0
%
 
5.7
%
 
36 bps

 
 
Aviation
5.1

 
6.8

 
(1.7
)
 
(24.4)%
Operating profit margin
2.1
%
 
2.9
%
 
(83) bps

 
 
Technology & Manufacturing
16.0

 
12.1

 
3.9

 
32.0%
Operating profit margin
7.0
%
 
7.5
%
 
(48) bps

 
 
Education
10.6

 
3.6

 
7.0

 
NM*
Operating profit margin
5.1
%
 
5.5
%
 
(40) bps

 
 
Technical Solutions
7.5

 
10.2

 
(2.7
)
 
(26.1)%
Operating profit margin
7.0
%
 
9.2
%
 
(226) bps

 
 
Healthcare
2.7

 
2.4

 
0.3

 
8.9%
Operating profit margin
3.8
%
 
4.0
%
 
(22) bps

 
 
Government Services

 
18.2

 
(18.2
)
 
NM*
Operating profit margin
NM*

 
42.3
%
 
NM*

 
 
Corporate
(37.1
)
 
(36.4
)
 
(0.7
)
 
1.8%
Adjustment for income from unconsolidated affiliates, net, included in Aviation and Government Services
(1.0
)
 
(1.1
)
 
0.1

 
8.1%
Adjustment for tax deductions for energy efficient government buildings, included in Technical Solutions
(2.0
)
 
(0.8
)
 
(1.2
)
 
NM*
 
$
45.3

 
$
51.0

 
$
(5.7
)
 
(11.2)%
*Not meaningful
Business & Industry
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
 
 
 
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
Increase
Revenues
$
723.2

 
$
637.5

 
$
85.7

 
13.4%
Operating profit (1)
43.5

 
36.0

 
7.5

 
20.7%
Operating profit margin
6.0
%
 
5.7
%
 
36 bps

 
 
(1) The three months ended April 30, 2018 includes $1.9 million of amortization expense related to the GCA acquisition.
B&I revenues increased by $85.7 million , or 13.4% , during the three months ended April 30, 2018 , as compared to the three months ended April 30, 2017 . The increase was primarily attributable to net new janitorial business, including new contract wins in the U.K. and expansion of existing accounts, and incremental revenues from the GCA acquisition of $42.5 million . Management reimbursement revenues for this segment totaled $63.5 million and $58.1 million for the three months ended April 30, 2018 and 2017 , respectively.

30


Operating profit increased by $7.5 million , or 20.7% , during the three months ended April 30, 2018 , as compared to the three months ended April 30, 2017 . Operating profit margin increased by 36 bps to 6.0% in the three months ended April 30, 2018 from 5.7% in the three months ended April 30, 2017 . The increase in operating profit margin was primarily associated with a non-recurring adjustment related to a client account and the management of selling, general and administrative expenses . This increase was partially offset by lower margins on Vehicle Services Contracts and certain janitorial accounts, as well as an increase in amortization expense related to the GCA acquisition . While labor challenges are present in certain areas of our B&I business, it is our most mature business and has the highest proportion of unionized labor, which allows us to manage labor costs more efficiently.
Aviation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
 
 
 
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
Increase / (Decrease)
Revenues
$
245.4

 
$
232.1

 
$
13.3

 
5.8%
Operating profit
5.1

 
6.8

 
(1.7
)
 
(24.4)%